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I think it would be more accurate to know the coffee tree before examining the coffee varieties. The genus of flowering trees we call Coffea is one of the flowering plants of the Rubiaceae family. Coffee cherries are obtained from this tree, which contains many species. Although only a few of these coffee types have spread around the world, new varieties are constantly being grown thanks to scientists.
How Many Different Types of Coffee Are There in the World?
There has been an intense effort by scientists lately for the development and increase of coffee varieties. To give an example, while around 60 Caffea species were known about 20 years ago, today this number has increased to over 120. In fact, no one knows exactly how many types of Caffea there are. All that is known is that the discovered Caffea species are increasing year by year.
So Where Do These Coffee Varieties Grow Naturally?
Species of the Coffea tree are known to grow wild in Madagascar, Africa, the Mascarene Islands, Comoros, Asia, and Australia. C. Arabica and C. Canephora species, known only as Arabica and Robusta beans, are commercially grown and presented to the world coffee market. Today, almost all of the coffee we consume in our homes, offices, or cafes is produced from these two beans. Because approximately 99 percent of world production consists of Arabica and Robusta beans. The origin of popular beans, such as Java, Blue Mountain, Sumatra, or all Bourbon varieties, which coffee lovers enjoy, is based on the Arabica variety. I will touch on the family tree of Arabica and which coffee beans come from Arabica in my later articles.
Another belief is that Arabica comes from a hybrid of C. robusta and C. Eugenioides found on the border of Ethiopia and South Sudan. I say faith because it is still not clear. In addition to all these types of coffee, some countries also grow small quantities of different types of coffee for local consumption.