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Known as the Mille Collines or the land of a thousand hills, Rwanda is one of the largest exporters of specialty coffees in Africa. Therefore, coffee is an integral part of Rwandan culture. A country’s national drink can play a more important role in defining that country’s culture than any other product. For example, coffee in Rwanda has the same cultural significance as beer in Germany. For Rwanda, coffee is a way of life, because when we consider the economic conditions of the country, the reason why coffee is so important is that it is the country’s largest cash product. In this article, we’ll take an in-depth look at Rwandan coffee, its varieties, where it’s grown, its unique flavor characteristics, and its washing stations. Let’s start.
Coffee trees were first planted in Rwanda in the early 20th century. These coffees, which started to be exported in a short time, became an important cash crop for the country. But the Rwandan coffee industry was severely hit in the 1994 Rwandan genocide when many coffee farms were destroyed and the country’s infrastructure was in shambles.
In the years following the genocide, the Rwandan government made concerted efforts to rebuild and revitalize the Rwandan coffee industry. Various international organizations such as SPREAD stepped in to revive the coffee industry in the country. These supports included investing in new coffee processing plants, educating farmers in modern growing techniques, and promoting Rwandan coffee on the international market. In addition to these supports, small proprietorship cooperatives shared expensive processing equipment, which further improved product quality and contributed to increasing respect for Rwandan coffee by experts. Today, Rwandan Coffee is once again an important contributor to the Rwandan economy, and the country is known for producing high-quality, specialty coffee.
Today, half of the country’s exports are provided by Rwandan Coffee. Therefore, coffee has recently become an important tool for the government to improve socioeconomic conditions in Rwanda. There has been a huge increase in coffee washing stations across the country. Today, it has become one of the main sources of income for many Rwandan farmers, with nearly 500,000 households making a living from Rwandan Coffee.
The types of coffee available in Rwanda vary by region and altitude. The most popular type of coffee is Bourbon, a type of Arabica. Other cultivars include Typica, Red Catuai, Yellow Catuai, and Blue Mountain.
Rwanda is home to four major coffee-growing regions, all of which contribute to the country’s overall production.
Western Province: The area on the shores of Lake Kivu is home to some of the most famous washing stations in Rwanda, which consistently produce complex, floral, elegant, juicy coffees of the highest quality.
Northern Province: The citrus, stone fruit, and caramel tones of coffees from the south of the Northern Province make these coffees balanced and sweet.
Southern Province: The high altitudes of the Southern Province of Rwanda produce coffees – delicate and sweet – with classic floral or citrus flavors and delicate creamy textures.
Eastern Province: Rwanda’s southeastern corner is home to a few washing stations and farms that are slowly gaining fame for their coffees with rich chocolate and forest fruit notes.
Rwandan coffee is known for its bright, fruity flavors and balanced acidity. Rwandan coffee is often described as having citrus, berry, and chocolate notes and is typically medium to full-bodied.
One of the unique features of Rwandan coffee is its high levels of trace minerals, which can give the coffee a distinctive, complex flavor. The country’s soil is rich in minerals such as magnesium, potassium, and calcium, which are absorbed by the coffee plants and can be tasted in the final product.
The taste of Rwandan Coffee is also affected by the altitude at which it is grown. This is because higher altitudes allow coffee beans to grow with a sweeter but bolder flavor than at lower altitudes.
Many coffee brewers use drip or pour to understand and highlight the flavor profile of Rwandan Coffee. The cold brew method highlights the rich notes of Rwandan Coffee while balancing the acidity of the dark-roasted coffee beans. Additionally, espresso or latte brewed from dark roasted Rwandan coffees pairs perfectly with the fuller and bolder flavors of the coffees.
A coffee washing station is a facility that processes raw coffee beans by removing their outer layers. This process helps improve the flavor profile of Rwandan coffees by removing any impurities and allows the unique qualities of each bean to emerge.
The introduction of washing stations in Rwanda has helped improve both the quality and quantity of locally grown coffees, making them more widely available to consumers. Wash stations are also popular for their scenic views, many of which are accessible by boat or bike. KZ Noir is a collective that operates three main wash stations in major cities across Rwanda, distributing high-quality Rwandan coffees from cooperatives and farms across the country. Various coffee tours are also organized by KZ Noir to washing stations around the country.
As a result, Rwandan coffee is a vital part of the country’s economy and culture and has earned a reputation for its high quality and unique flavor profile. While there are challenges facing the industry, efforts are being made to address them and ensure the continued growth and success of Rwandan coffee.