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Coffee is known as the second most traded commodity in the world. For now, oil is more of a traded product than coffee.
Coffee beans, the second most popular commodity in the world, were first discovered in Ethiopia and became a beverage that increases its popularity day by day by going through various processes.
You will find that coffee-producing countries have one thing in common today. They all consist of countries located in the tropics.
About 50 countries export and consume their coffee globally. Let’s examine the 10 countries that have the highest export volume among these countries and produce the best coffees in the world.
Of course, Uganda is the first country that comes to mind when Robusta coffee is mentioned. Coffee beans grown for generations are harvested from the rain forests of Ecuador.
High-quality Robusta beans are a very suitable choice for espresso and filter coffee brewing methods. If you are preparing a milky coffee, robusta beans play an excellent role in enhancing the flavor of your coffee.
If we look at the characteristic features of Robusta coffee beans, you can find oak tones and an earthy flavor. The taste leaves in the mouth generally resemble the taste of peanuts.
Coffee beans emerge as a product that started to gain importance in Guatemala towards the end of the 19th century.
In the late 19th century, coffee accounted for almost 90% of Guatemala’s exports. This situation is still valid today. The coffee beans produced in this region are quite successful in terms of quality compared to other regions.
Types of coffee beans produced in Guatemala; Bourbon, Caturra, Catuai, Typica, Maragogype, Pache & Pacamara. Harvest time is between November and April.
Coffee growing regions in Guatemala; Antigua, Acatenango, Atitlán, Cobán, Huehuetenango, Faijanes, San Marcos & Nuevo Orientea. The common feature of these regions is low humidity, volcanic soil, plenty of sun, and cool nights.
If we look at the characteristic feature of the coffees grown in Guatemala, we can see that they have medium-full bodied and many chocolate flavors. Many coffees have either a bitter-sweet cocoa flavor or a sweet, milk chocolate flavor. In addition, hazelnut and confectionery notes are among the known characteristics of the coffees produced in this region.
Coffee rust is a disease that causes coffee plants to rot and quickly reduces their yield. It starts to appear as small yellow spots on the upper surfaces of the coffee leaves, and then these spots enlarge and cover the entire leaves.
This problem greatly affected the coffee production of India towards the end of the 19th century, and the indigenous people of the region uprooted their coffee fields and planted tea plants instead. India is generally known as the country of tea, but we know that coffee has been produced in this country since the 17th century.
In India, coffee is traditionally grown in the Western Ghats spanning Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, and most of the production is exported to Europe.
The two main varieties of coffee, Arabica and Robusta are grown in India. Arabica is a mild coffee, but the beans being more aromatic, it has higher market value compared to Robusta beans. On the other hand, Robusta has more strength and is, therefore, used in making various blends.
The spicy aromas of a quality Indian coffee may include notes of cardamom, cloves, pepper, and nutmeg, and perhaps tropical fruit notes.
Coffee is grown in 10 regions in Peru. Near the border with Ecuador, St Ignacio is known as the central region of coffee plantations in northern Peru.
Coffee, which has been produced in Peru since the 18th century, could not be used as an export product for a long time due to insufficient knowledge and infrastructure problems in coffee processing, and most of the products were consumed by the local people. This situation has begun to take its place in the world market in Peru, with coffee becoming an increasingly valuable product and the advancement of coffee processing technologies.
The characteristic features of this coffee, which is grown on the eastern slopes of the Andes and is generally harvested in June-September, is that it contains lively flower aromas and has a rich sweetness.
The only type of coffee grown in Ethiopia is Arabica. This species falls into three categories: Longberry, Shortberry, and Mocha. Longberry varieties consist of the largest beans and are generally considered the highest quality in both value and flavor.
If we look at the characteristic feature of coffees grown in Ethiopia, we can feel the taste of jasmine flower, bergamot, and blueberry notes. The body of the coffee is not very strong. Its acidity is light and pleasant.
Most Honduran coffees are grown on small mountain farms known as “Fincas” at high altitudes between 1400-1700 meters. The most coffee-growing regions are Copán, Montecillos, Agalta, Opalaca, Comayagua, & El Paraiso. Harvest is generally done in November-April.
The characteristic features of the coffees produced in Honduras are the notes of vanilla and hazelnut. Its acidity is balanced.
The story of coffee in this small country of thousands of small islands dates back to the end of the 17th century. The first place where coffee was grown and used in Indonesia is known as the island of Java.
The characteristic feature of coffees in Indonesia, which is a volcanic region, is that it contains earthy flavors. It usually leaves a flavor like unsweetened or dark cocoa on the palate.
The story of coffee in Colombia begins in the middle of the 18th century when a traveler brought the coffee bean to the region and continued commercially in the early 19th century.
Today, Colombian coffee is known as the softest coffee in the world. If we look at its characteristic structure, we can find a soft acidity and a strong caramel sweetness in its content.
Vietnam is currently the second-largest coffee exporter in the world. The breakthrough that made Vietnam so strong in coffee was realized in 1986, thanks to the Vietnamese government’s permission for coffee production to the private sector.
Almost all coffee beans produced in Vietnam are Robusta. The coffee produced here has a thick and persistent flavor. It contains high acidity and is quite strong in terms of caffeine.
Brazil is the world’s leader in coffee production, thanks to the right sunlight and precipitation throughout the year, its proximity to sea level, and its temperature. The coffees grown in this region are Arabica and Robusta.
A quality Brazilian coffee contains soft, nutty, low acidity, and a pleasant bittersweet chocolate flavor.